Periodic optometric examinations are an important part of routine preventive health care. Many eye and vision conditions present no obvious symptoms. Therefore,  individuals are often unaware that a problem exists. Early diagnosis and  treatment are important for maintaining good vision and when possible preventing  permanent vision loss.

The need for and frequency of optometric examinations varies with age, race,  medical history, family history, occupation and other factors. Individuals with  ocular signs or symptoms require prompt examination. In addition, the presence  of certain risk factors may necessitate more frequent evaluations based on  professional judgment.

Infants and Children

Newborns are typically screened at birth for congenital eye disorders and  disease. In addition, all infants should receive an evaluation for vision  problems and eye disease by an optometrist by six months of age or sooner  if abnormalities or risk factors are present. Early diagnosis and treatment are  important to assure proper visual development, to prevent vision loss due to eye  disease and to manage hereditary or congenital eye disorders such as lazy eye or  crossed eyes.

In the absence of specific problems or symptoms, re-examinations at age three  and prior to entry into school are recommended. These examinations provide the  opportunity to evaluate the level of a child’s visual development and can  provide early diagnosis and intervention to prevent visual impairment due to  various conditions.

At Risk:   Infants born prematurely, with low birth weight, or  whose mother had rubella, venereal disease, AIDS related infection or a history  of substance abuse or other medical problems during pregnancy are at a  particularly high risk for the development of eye and vision problems. Also, the  presence of high refractive error or a family history of eye disease, crossed  eyes or congenital eye disorders places infants and children at risk.

School-aged Children

Vision may change frequently during the school years. The most common  problems are due to the development and progression of nearsightedness. In  addition, the existence of eye focusing and/or eye coordination problems may  affect school performance. Periodic examinations are recommended.

At Risk:   Children failing to progress educationally or  exhibiting reading and/or learning disabilities should receive an optometric  examination as part of a multidisciplinary evaluation.


During the adult years, the increased visual demands of our technological  society bring about the need for regular optometric care. While the incidence of  ocular disease is low for young adults, vocational and recreational visual  demands are significant. To maintain visual efficiency, productivity, and  optimum eye health, periodic examinations are recommended.

Adults, beginning in their early to mid-forties, can experience changes in  their ability to see clearly at close distances. This normal aging change in the  eye’s focusing ability will continue during the forties and fifties. In  addition, increases in the incidence of eye health problems occur during these  years. Therefore, periodic eye examinations are recommended.

At Risk:   Individuals diagnosed with diabetes or  hypertension, or who have a family history of glaucoma,  those who work in highly visually demanding or eye hazardous  occupations, those taking certain systemic medications with ocular side effects  or those with other health concerns or conditions.

Older Adults

Individuals age 61 or older have an increasing risk for the development of  cataracts, glaucoma and macular degeneration and other sight threatening or  visually disabling eye conditions as well as systemic health conditions.  Therefore, annual eye examinations are recommended.

At Risk:   Individuals diagnosed with diabetes or  hypertension, or who have a family history of glaucoma or cataracts, and those  taking systemic medications with ocular side effects or those with other health  concerns or conditions. <size=3>

* Guidelines in this table may be insufficient for contact lens wearers